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Sibenik is the oldest autochthonous, native Croatian town on the Adriatic coast and is located in the most protected natural harbour in the middle of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, next to ancient Mare Adriaticum at the mouth of beautiful river Krka at the foundation of rich Croatian history, probably the sight where some of the first Croatian settlers saw the big blue sea, moody and beautiful, sea that protected, sheltered and fed them for centuries. Sibenik is nowadays a major cultural, educational, administrative and economic center of a Šibenik-Knin county which is populated according to the 2001 census by 51 553 inhabitants. The same county has not one but two national parks - Krka Falls and Kornati.
Sibenik was first mentioned in 1066. in a document written and issued by the King Peter Kresimir IV who then resided in St. Michael’s fortified citadel. How Sibenik got its name is a mistery but there is one theory according to which a well known Renaissance novelist Juraj Sizgorić wrote that the name was derived from Croatian word šiba that means tree. Since the whole territory is surrounded by the St. Michael’s forest this might be correct. Venetians ruled the city in two periods from 1116-1124. And from 1125-1133. In 1167 Sibenik was given autonomy by the Croatian-Hungarian king Stephen IV. After a short period of Byzantine rule until 1180. Town was ruled alternately by the Croatian-Hungarian kings, Venice, Bosnian king Stephen Tvrtko and Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinic from Hercegovina.
Sibenik was again under Venetian rule from 1412 until 1797. Austrian rule took over from then until 1918 except there was a short period of French occupation at the beginning of 19th century. At the end of World War II Sibenik along with the rest of Dalmatia was occupied by Italy but it was restored to Croatia according to the Rapallo agreement in 1920.
City of Sibenik is at the exceptionally significant traffic position that enables direct traffic lines with other destinations. The backbone is Adriatic tourist road with two branching one to Drnis (33 km) and othet to Knin (55 km) and further to the Croatian inland. Sibenik is also a resting stop on important route and railway line that leads towards Zagreb and Split. Air traffic goes through Split airport Resnik in Kastela (45 km) and airport Zemunik 50 km away from Sibenik.
It was built in 15th century and finished in 16th century. To be precise construction works started in 1431. and lasted until 1536. This triple nave basilica is unique not only in the Croatian architecture but in the European as well and this is why it is under UNESCO protection. Jacob’s Cathedral was entirely built out of stone and no other material was used during its construction. 71 realistic sculptural portraits are surrounding it. Many of them were probably benefactors since the entire community gave money and took part in building it. On 18th September in 1991 3 granates from Serbian battleship destroyed the original dome but it was reconstructed in 1996.
It rises on a hill 70 meters above sea level. With its size and appearance it tells us that it probably dates somewhere between XV. - XVIII. century. In the north-eastern part the remains from the prehistoric Iron Age culture were discovered and so it is almost certain that the Croats build the fort on the site where once existed a checkpoint of ancient Illyrians. The fortress was damaged twice in 1663. and in 1752. both times in gunpowder magazine explosion so afterwards it was repaired
At the entrance of St. Anthony canal this fortress was built in the middle of 16th century in order to protect Sibenik from Turkish attacks from the seaside. It was constructed according to the designs of Venetian military architect Sanmichelli and is considered to be one of the strongest naval fortifications on the Croatian Adriatic. It played an important role in defence from the Turks especially in era of Candian and Cyprus War.
It is located on a 115 metre high hill on the north side of the historic city core. It erected in 1646. and was constructed according to Venetian military engineer Antonio Leni’s designs. Next to this fort hard battles took place with the army of Turkish pasha Takelije who had unsuccessfully tried in 1647 to take the rule over Sibenik.
This fort was built in 1646. at the location slightly lower and several hundred meters southwest to the St. John’s Fort. It greatly contributed to the successful resistance to the military campaign in 1647. It was called for long period of time Degenfeld, according to the Sibenik defence commander who was actually a German in Venetian military service.
Joseph Sizgoric (142.0-1509.) – his book of poems and elegies was the first Croatian author book that was published
Antun Vrancic (1504.-1573.) – Croatian nobleman, diplomat, writer, archbishop and cardinal
Faust Vrancic (1551.-1617.).- the inventor of a parachute, a true Renaissance man who among many other thing wrote a first Croatian dictionary
Drazen Petrovic (1964. 1993.) – famous NBA basketball player who died tragically in a car accident
Goran Visnjic (1972) – the actor who appears in many American movies, but his most famous role so far was the one of Dr. Luka Kovac in TV series ER